Akula's 30 W lantern replication

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cd_sharp posted this 26 March 2017

This is the device shot taken from youtube. I noticed there are several versions of the schematic, slightly different that were posted on several forums. I took the screenshot from the video uploaded by Chris and I will consider this one as the basis for my replication:

I also created a Circuit Wizard file. It's a habit of mine to run a simulation before trying anything for real, just to make sure nothing blows up. It would be useful if we would be able to upload files also. I'd like to share the .cwz file with you.

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cd_sharp posted this 26 March 2017

Here is the parts list:

and the cwz file screenshot:

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thaelin posted this 26 March 2017

This is a classic unit that I have watched with interest. So wished that they would allow some others to know how it really is made and works. The world seriously need this kind of tech now. Soon my friend, soon.

 

thay

 

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cd_sharp posted this 26 March 2017

I have some trouble finding MBR3545 diodes, so I'm looking for another type of diodes. Here is datasheet:

http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/169/mbr3545_thru_mbr35100r-218591.pdf

It has a max current of 35A and forward voltage of 0.68V.

Considering this, do you think it would be a bad idea to use instead MBR1635?

http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/149/MBR1660-1011072.pdf

It supports a current of 16A (but that should not be a problem for max 30W power) and has a lower forward voltage, 0.63V. Do you think it's a good idea?

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cd_sharp posted this 29 March 2017

It's a work in progress. There is something else I don't know for sure, the inductance that I marked in red:

which is this one in the schematic:

I can see there are 7 or 8 turns. To anyone that replicated this, how many turns did you use for this coil?

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cd_sharp posted this 31 March 2017

I finished the circuit and I gave it a try. Only LED HL11 lights up for a second and then turns off. I probably made a mistake ( although I double checked everything before powering it). Any advice?

 

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Chris posted this 31 March 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - If I may recommend, perhaps smaller steps?

Do you have a function Generator? I would try to resonate the Coils and find where the resonant points are, look at Input and Output at these points.

The problem is all coils will have slight differences in Inductance and so on. 

Also, like the MrPreva Experiment, the Coils will have an optimum configuration, Akula also used a Function Generator to find the resonance point on his Coils also:

 

I hope this helps!

   Chris

 

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cd_sharp posted this 31 March 2017

Hi, Chris!

Do you have a function Generator?

Yes

I would try to resonate the Coils and find where the resonant points are, look at Input and Output at these points.

Do you mean I should put them in a Mr Preva experiment schematic and find the "magic" frequency? This depends on the value of the capacitor also, right?

Chris posted this 31 March 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - That's just what I would do.

The Coils are where we need to concentrate, looking at the Current Directions at the same time. Ensuring we have met the requirements needed to "Generate" the excess Energy we are looking for.

It may be the Core may need to be changed? I have found some cores better than others? 

Just trying to help, hope you don't mind me pointing out these things.

I posted this to My Replication.

All the best

   Chris

 

Edit: Sorry, your question on the Capacitor, normally: f = 1 / 2 PI Sqt(L C)

But in this situation, you will find, this is not so important, the capacitor is just acting as a Reservoir and the Resistor's R1 & R3 is used to take the square edges off the DC Switching. 

 

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Chris posted this 01 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - I should say, Load is important. This depends on the device as to what is meant by this. But basically, the Resistance of the Load along with the Resistance of the Coils (NOTE: Resistance of the Coils changes during Operation) determines the Current that flows in the Coils.

The Current that flows in the Coils IS the Magnetic Field, calculated as: B = µ0 I N / L

So, the very flow of Current (I), through Turns (T) at Length (L) with Permeability (µ0) determines the Magnetic Field (B)

Electromagnetic Induction states that the Magnetic Field B and the density of it is a dependant value of Electromagnetic Induction: E.M.F = dPhiB/dt

So there is a little bit of fiddling, getting the right Load, making sure the Magnetic Fields are as high as you can, but not saturating the core.

I hope this helps!

All the best

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 01 April 2017

 Hi, Chris! I used your schematic, this one:

with the only difference that I used 2200 uF electrolytic capacitors and ultra fast diodes.

First I used the U+U ferrite cores shown in the previous posts. I swept slowly the entire range 3khz-65khz with sine wave input and I saw no magic frequencies. In the process I burned 2 LEDs. Then I switched to a 1.2 W light bulb.

I changed to E+E ferrite cores and and I made 15/45 turns. The ferrite is 3F3 and has a bigger inductance factor than the U cores(which are 3C90):

Again I tried to find any frequencies where the input drops and the output grows or at least stays the same with no success. Then it struck me a question: if there are 15 turns in the primary and 45 in the secondary, why do they look symmetrical(also in the VTA they look symmetrical):

I guess the secondary is wrapped first and 30 turns are placed on a core piece and 15 turns on the other core piece. Then the primary 15 turns are wrapped on top the existing 15 turns of the secondary. What do you think, should I give it a try? Any other ideas what I did wrong?

Thanks

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Chris posted this 01 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp, Very Nice!

I think that the Currents in the Coils, the Magnetic Fields, are not opposing maybe? Can you check with a Scope?

I have a small Measurement Block I use, similar to the last ones I showed prior, but this is only to measure Currents:

 

With these, I can monitor the Currents in the Coils all the time. I can fiddle to get the best result. Maximum Current Amplitudes are about where the best results are obtained.

The Metal Strip Through Home Resistors are 0.1 Ohms (0R1) and are pretty good for this sort of thing. Very low Circuit impedance, but still sufficient to make a reasonable good measurement.

Recently, I did some experiments, where I had trouble getting the Currents to oppose, something very odd going on, I will show more on this soon. Electromagnetic Induction is Equal and Opposite, this is Lenz's Law, it is built into Electromagnetic Induction and will never change, so I need to try to explain why sometimes we don't get this Opposition!

Re Symmetrical Coils:

Yes, you can have Symmetrical Coils and because the Magnetic Field is NI/L the Field is Symmetrical with the Same number of Turns (N) and Current (I)!

But, please remember, if there is a situation where you use Symmetrical Coils, equal turns on each Coil, then there is always an offset of approximately 1/4  to the turns on the Primary, or Input Coil. Don Smith shows this very Clearly:

 

 

Don's Turns:

  • L1 = 4 Turns
  • L2 = 16 Turns
  • L3 = 16 Turns

Don regularly terms the Output Coils, Partnered Output Coils as a single Coil, normally only using the L2 label. I have found it best to deem this Coil in Two Parts, because each part of the Coil has two different functions.

I hope this helps

   Chris

 

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cd_sharp posted this 04 April 2017

I did some more work on the coils, I have 160 turns in secondary and 51 in primary on the U+U cores:

Although I understood that wire wound resistors are not good for current sensing, I did a preliminary measurement until my precision shunt resistors will be delivered. I played a little with the input frequency and at about 18.48 KHz a strange noise appears and a strange signal shows up on the scope:

Chris, I guess this is what we are looking for, right?

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cd_sharp posted this 04 April 2017

Another thing I noticed without having a sensing resistor is that the power consumption of the circuit drops significantly having the LED on at about 29.5 KHz input frequency, but if I cut the input power, the LED turns off.

Chris posted this 04 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - Excellent Work!

Viewing the Current Wave Form as you are, is handy to see where Current Wave Forms that are not your Input lay. That's right, this is the Goal! We want a Our Input Single Pulse to be seen, and then a Secondary Pulse or a series of them by means of Electromagnetic Induction!!!

Now all you have to do is isolate where these pulses are coming from, making sure its the Coils and not the Sensing Resistor or anything else. 

By viewing both Coils at the same time, with two sense resistors with the circuit above also helps. We should see Ecual but Opposite Currents, then we know we are on the right track.

Excellent Work!!!

All the Best

   Chris

 

 

cd_sharp posted this 11 April 2017

Hi, Chris! I finished up the current sensing PCB. From the following pictures I believe that the voltage drop on one resistor is positive and the voltage drop through the other precision resistor is negative. I think this means the currents go in opposite directions, right? It's what we need?

 

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cd_sharp posted this 12 April 2017

My current setup resonates at 198.4 kHz. One problem I see is that the light emitted by the LEDs is not very stable. Any advice on this? I'm thinking I'm ready to build the full circuit. What do you think?

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Chris posted this 13 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - WOW Excellent Work!!! Sorry I have been busy the last few days.

I think you are showing excellent results! You have proved several things, things that many others have trouble with.

  • Currents are Opposite, 180 Degrees out of phase!
  • Lighting LED's when in Resonance! A Load!
  • The basic Circuit works as we have shown!

Maybe try pulling more load by adding LED's and see what your Input Does? I would learn as much as possible here before moving too much further.

Ideally you want the input as low as possible. This may mean adding a few more turns to the big coil. By experimenting with these two parameters, Load and Turns vs Input Current this should show a lot!

CD, this is awesome work! You should be very excited! This is ground many cant get to!

All the best,

   Chris

 

P.S: Your Input, is it a single Pulse as I expect it is? DC Pulse to the Fet?

Chris posted this 13 April 2017

If I may suggest, look at your Gate on your Fet with one of your Probes. 

Make sure its turning off properly. It likely is, but worth checking. Then look at the Time of your Input Pulse vs your Output.

The goal if to maximise the total Electromagnetic Induction, for no extra on the Input.

You should get 2x Electromagnetic Induction at the Cost of 1x - This is the Action Reaction then Counter-Reaction thing.

   Chris

 

P.S: Aim to maximise the Electromagnetic Induction you already have going on.

cd_sharp posted this 13 April 2017

Thanks for all the help. I use a sine wave DC input through a power amplifier circuit. I will be back with some more data.

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Chris posted this 13 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - Ah ok, yes I see. Try adding the Fet, use a Function Generator to pulse it. You will likely need the resistor, this will reduce the sharp DC Gradients/Pulses on the Coil and help to smooth, Sine as you have shown. Try different values, 1 Ohm, 0.22 or so. Same as on the schematic ( R1 and R3 ).

You should see a DC Pulse input and a Pulse Output which is Free - I have shown this many years back here: My Early Work

Excellent Work!

   Chris

Chris posted this 13 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - It may be worth a read or a quick look over at the real Inventor of these circuits, Akula only copied and replicated them from Andrej Melnichenko

Take note of the Wave forms (Flyback, Spike), and the ideas presented. Newton's Law's: Every Action has an Equal and opposite Reaction

We need to think in terms of Segments in Time, and what is happening in these Segments! For each Segment can contain Electromagnetic Induction, some where we have to Pay for this Electromagnetic Induction, and some where we do not have to Pay for this Electromagnetic Induction.

   Chris

Please Note: "Flyback, Spike" in it's self is not Over Unity, but this is a Segment in Time, where we have:

  • A Magnetic Field Changing in Time
  • Current coming back out of the Coil at 1/2 LI2
  • Two Coils Where the Magnetic Fields Oppose

All, at no cost to Us, this Segment in Time is Free, for Us to Maximise the Electromagnetic Induction!

 

cd_sharp posted this 17 April 2017

Hi, Chris! I read the above stuff and it all makes sense. I believe a variable duty cycle function generator is needed to try this multiple EM induction, right?

Unfortunately, my existing function generator does not allow duty cycle control and I'm thinking to order a more powerful one and it may take some time for the delivery.

I also noticed that Andrey Melnichenko talks about the air gap (the split) between the 2 core sections:

This sentence makes me think about the "Aspect Ratio" that Floyd Sweet wrote so much about.

I guess in our case the split is actually the distance between the 2 POC coils and there is no need for an air gap, right?

I also know from my previous experience that such an air gap can counteract successfully any magnetic saturation of the core.

Anyway, I will not be posting any more experiments probably for at least 2 weeks until I receive my function generator.

Thanks so much for all the help!

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Chris posted this 17 April 2017

 Hi Cd_Sharp - You dont have to have a variable DC FG for this, it can help to get best results, but not necessary.

In the past I have used a small Microcontroller to do this Variable Duty Cycle and that has worked fine, so nothing expensive is needed,

The Air Gap is something I would reserve for later decisions, it can get complicated and confusing if one spends too much time with the Gap. I would stay on track, with what you have got as you already have excellent results.

If one wanted, one could even go down the path of using a "Cross Coupled  Oscillator" at the desired Frequency. Very simple and very cheap.

 

Of course the specified values would need to be changed, this was from a very old project of mine.

   Chris

 

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cd_sharp posted this 27 April 2017

Hi, Chris! When you said to add a FET and a resistor is this what you had in mind?

I'll give this a try with some much bigger coils 73/220 turns and still keeping the 1/3 ratio.

Thanks

Chris posted this 27 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - Sorry I wasn't Clear - No I meant the Resistors: R1 and R3

These resistors are set in attempt to round off the sharp voltage gradients on the coils - from the DC Capacitor Mosfet Pulse - To create a steady change over time of the Magnetic Field and which in turn creates a steady "Generation" of Electricity via Electromagnetic Induction. Notice the Switch SB1 is used to switch Off the Device, for this Coil is the Coil that keeps the Device Powered and the Interactions of these two Coils together that Pumps the Electricity back to keep C11 and thus C3 topped up if you like.

In the following Video, you can see the Resistors have been changed and one is soldered temporarily on the under side of the PCB:

 

Its worth noting, this work is exactly the same work as the Andrey Melnichenko Work, follows all the same principles even though the Circuit is different. Tariel Kapanadze also gives credit to Andrey Melnichenko for his work. Its all related, all works on the same principles.

Its worth noting, this basic Circuit is exactly the same as the MrPreva Circuit, the exact same principles also apply and you have already shown excellent results there!

   Chris

 

 

cd_sharp posted this 29 April 2017

Hi, Chris! I understand what R1 and R3 are doing. However, I do not know how to properly use my function generator and the MOSFET to replace the drive half of Akula's circuit.

I'm thinking on trying the full circuit using a breadboard, because I'm very confused at this point.

Thanks for all the advice.

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Chris posted this 30 April 2017

Apologies Cd_Sharp, I did already think you knew the functions of the resistors. Yes please, you do what you feel best, your gut feeling is whats most important.

Mosfets are a DC Switch as you know, so a single pulse will only switch one way.

Take your time, if you're confused, Think on the Electrons in the Wire and what they are doing. How can we make them Move, and how can we make this process as efficient as possible?

What do Charged Particles do in a Magnetic Field? What does the Magnetic Field make them Do? If they have an Orbital movement, how can we manipulate this movement?

   Chris

 

cd_sharp posted this 30 April 2017

Hi, Chris! I know what a resistor, a MOSFET, a coil, .. generally do in a circuit. I've been investigating this field for years. I can't say I'm an expert, but I'm not a beginner.

I know everything that you made available, all your videos, documents, etc. I agree with you about principles and theory. I look up to you for a clear and practical path to making this work. However, sometimes I'm having a hard time understanding the practical part from your work.

For example, Mr Preva circuit you are using for showing the basic effect.

I do not understand what can be done with the simple test bed circuit. Is it supposed to be a simplified version of Akula's 30W circuit? Is it supposed to be used just to find the resonant frequency of the coils assembly? If so, can't the Mr Preva circuit be used to find the resonant frequency, just by replacing the coils?

Only after finding the resonant frequency is the correct time to build the full Akula 30W circuit and aim for that frequency?

I'm trying to understand this as a learning process before continuing the actual work. Over the years I had a huge amount of failures and I'm trying to avoid that.

cd_sharp posted this 30 April 2017

Also, can you please take a look at this to let me know if it's worth a try replacing the full Akula 30W circuit? Thanks!

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Chris posted this 30 April 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp, Yes I have built the same basic circuit, and yes any time we have the opportunity to learn a bit more it worth the effort.

If the DC power is permanently connected, then the Capacitor may not show a Discharge Time Constant, maybe a switch after the DC In. Charge the Cap then turn the Circuit on.

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 05 May 2017

Hi, Chris! What do you mean, like this?

Chris posted this 05 May 2017

Yes nice!

A push to connect switch, so the Cap is not connected all the time to the Voltage Source.

The reason, you know already?

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 05 May 2017

In order to allow it to run itself, to recharge the caps from the bemf of the larger coil, right? Up until now I was unable to find any truly resonant freq, but sweeping takes time. I did not give up.

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Chris posted this 05 May 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - Yes, sort of.

The Capacitor and Coil (L1) on the Transformer/Generator will have a LC Time Constant, this Time Constant will not be the same if the Voltage Source is permanently connected. The Capacity of C will dissapear. As the Voltage Source is constant.

So yes, youre right, there can be no Recharging if the Voltage Source is Constant!

EDIT: See: The Wave Forms Required.

   Chris

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cd_sharp posted this 06 May 2017

It's good to know that. This explains why I found no resonant frequency until now.

Here I see a problem. In order to try to find the resonant frequency, I would need to repeat the following process manually: choose the frequency from the function generator manually, close the switch SW2 to charge the cap C2, then open the switch SW2 and see what happens to the load.

This means I cannot use the automatic frequency sweep that my new function generator is capable of.

I guess the switch SW2 would have to be replaced by an automatic switch, something using a transistor that switches off the power supply when the CAP C2 is full and switches on when C2 voltage is zero. Am I right?

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Chris posted this 06 May 2017

@Cd_Sharp - Are your Turns Count about the same as the Schematic? A Turns Ratio of approximately 1:4 is needed, for every one turn on the Primary 4 Turns on the Secondary.

It gets complex, but the other way around also works, I dont want to confuse the device.

Yes, some degree of on off on off is needed. A little painful.

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 07 May 2017

I can see in the main Akula's diagram a 1 : 3 turns ratio. I'm using 1 : 3. I'll try using 1:4.

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Chris posted this 07 May 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - 1 : 3 turns ratio is fine, that will still work.

No point changing that yet.

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 12 May 2017

Hi, Chris! This is the latest work. I used this circuit posted by you, trying to resonate my coils:

and I connected my equipment like this to try to replicate the circuit above:

The results are amazing so far:

If I cut the power, the LED stays on for a few tens of seconds, so I must be getting close to the resonant frequency. I'm sorry I did not take a close shot of the scope, but I definitely saw a lot of output pulses between two input pulses and also during an input pulse. The fact that my power supply show 0.00 A means the circuit uses under 10 mA.

Chris posted this 12 May 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp - Again nice work, but, you have already done that, we now already know Currents in the Coils are opposing.

Resonating the Coils is not LC Resonance, we have seen the Work done by the Coils, this is Energy Generation when the Currents/Magnetic Fields oppose. Now you need to replicate the Pulsing with the Mosfet, that I posted to the main thread: Akula's 30 W lantern

Remembering, a small input can have a big impact on a device - The Input Resonance is not LC, you need to think more in lines of the Links I provided in the other threads now.

Remember the Mosfet is a DC Switch, it Chops DC, the Capacitors are acting as a Reservoir only.

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 12 May 2017

Now you need to replicate the Pulsing with the Mosfet, that I posted to the main thread: Akula's 30 W lantern

I assume you mean this one, right?

From what I can tell, the transistors are: AT30, C945 (easily found in radios as 2SC945) and K7805AM. Is it correct? I can't find these ones in my area: AT30 and K7805. Do you have a suggestion for replacements?

Thanks

Chris posted this 12 May 2017

Hi Cd_Sharp, any mosfet or Transistor with a good rating and a good Rise and Decay time will do, also a good rds on would be nice. a Common 3055 or a IRF3205 will be sufficent, just make sure its getting turned on and off properly.

No need for anything special or unusal, no need to order any Russian Diodes or Transistors.

Did you read the documents? Do you know what needs to be done? the Pulses?

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 12 May 2017

Did you read the documents? Do you know what needs to be done? the Pulses?

Yes, partially as I have limited daily time for this. A very small duty cycle square wave must be used to hit the frequency where the time between input pulses are completely filled by a continuous pulse on the output.

The antenna stuff is really new for me. All the other information is basic physics: voltage, current, charge, resistance, Lorentz Force, Lenz's Law, etc which are really just a theoretical model that fits in for now.

You are deliberately avoiding to give straight answers and I think I know why.

To everyone else reading this, please give this thing a try! Let's all try to practically apply this!

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cd_sharp posted this 19 May 2017

I worked back and forth with the Akula No 4 circuit video trying to understand how to resonate the coil(s). I'll talk about ESR and not LC resonance, as Chris explained that this is what we are looking for. This is the most important shot:

I believe it's clear that Akula uses just the big coil when finding the ESR frequency. On the right hand side there are at least 4 coil endings which look like they are not connected to anything, they are not powered and not shorted out, they are open.

So, I guess this is the ESR circuit:

It looks like LC resonance circuit. The action is our input signal through the big coil, the reaction is the back emf spike and the counter reaction is an echo of the back emf spike that only happens at a certain frequency. This is what Chris discovered.

@Chris, am I correct?

Chris posted this 20 May 2017

@Cd_Sharp - I am going to ask you to please be a bit more aware on what you are writing.

Some of your comments are not being received well.

You are deliberately avoiding to give straight answers and I think I know why.

and comments like

This is what Chris discovered.

  • This is not my discovery
  • I have given you more than enough documentation supporting what we have seen in several video demonstrations of working devices!
  • I have told you where to look and what to aim for, what's important, and what the goal is.
  • I have given you the answers for Electrical Energy, Kinetic Energy, Charge in motion and how to easily start this process off.

Floyd Sweet, Akula and many hundreds more have all told you the same thing, Akula's Ferro Resonance is the same thing as Floyd Sweet's Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, both terms used by those before us.

If you choose to continue here, please do so in a respectful manner! Read and study the supporting information, understand what it is you're aiming for, because without this understanding you're shooting blind and will never succeed! I simply can not stress this enough!

I understand frustration enters with Failure, but let me tell you, frustration will never help your cause!

   Chris

cd_sharp posted this 21 May 2017

You are deliberately avoiding to give straight answers and I think I know why.

I think you want everyone to do the work, that is why.

This is what Chris discovered.

For me, you discovered that echo because I did not study carefully Akula's videos. All because I do not understand russian and it was boring.

I don't see why you are not receiving well these comments. I said only positive words to you and about you.

If you choose to continue here, please do so in a respectful manner!

I don't believe I insulted anyone.

I understand frustration enters with Failure, but let me tell you, frustration will never help your cause!

You have nothing to gain by insulting me.

I have told you where to look and what to aim for, what's important, and what the goal is.

You have, and I'm thanking you once again for it.

If I'm not welcome here, please let me know.

Chris posted this 02 June 2017

All are welcome CD_Sharp! Thank you for clearing that up.

Yes, I think its important that people read, do the homework, and let the facts, and also make the connections else where to these same facts, do the talking, then they can proceed if that is what they wish!

Thus my intentions for having the Reference Section, reading there for 1/2 an hour, you can see many many similar references to the exact same tech we are sharing.

You are welcome, as all are. Please remember, I can only do so much, the rest is up to the Experimenter on the other end.

With some direction, the job is very much easier, as a team, it is even easier again.

   Chris

 

cd_sharp posted this 11 October 2017

I think I replicated the first part of the experiment:

Thanks, Chris and Aloha for the help.

cd_sharp posted this 26 October 2017

I worked a little these days on this project and I definitely can say that it's easier for a beginner like me to research a small coil (20-30 turns), like Akula shows. I came to this conclusion after I played quite a bit with the setup above (206 turns).

I watched closely Akula's video, and it looks like the pulses are under 5% DTC.

I can tell you that lately I was surprised what you can see on the scope pulsing just 3V and 1% DTC in 20 turns. I need time to understand and document what I'm seeing, and I will do that.

cd_sharp posted this 5 weeks ago

Hi, everyone! I didn't quit on this one, I have it on my desk and I promise I'll come back on it in January 2018 because I'm intrigued by what I saw back in October.

cd_sharp posted this 4 days ago

I'm back on this one as I promised.

My first thought is it's very important to know the duty cycle Akula uses. It can be calculated:

The time per divison is 5us and pulse duration is about a fifth of a division. So, the pulse duration is about 1us.

Since we know that the input frequency is about 250Hz, the period is 4ms.

So, DTC = 1 * 10^-6 / 4 * 10^-3 = 25 * 10^-5 = 0.025%.

If you see any mistakes in my calculations please let me know!

Anyway, from watching the video it's clear that Akula uses extremely low DTC.

Zanzal posted this 3 days ago

Wow, great work there. And yes, your calculation looks good to me (1us / 4000us)*100% is 0.025%. That's very interesting. I don't think I ever tried an Akula replication with such unusually low duty cycles. I'll have to re-test my old circuits now.

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